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Much weakened, the Mongols were finally crushed by the Chin, who had formed an alliance with the Tatars, in 1161.
The Mongols were forced to pay tribute to the Chin and became increasingly poor.
The only sedentary state with any power in the region was the Chin or Jin (meaning gold) dynasty, founded by the Jürchids, one of the Tungusic tribes that had taken control of Manchuria from the Kitan in the early 12th century.
The south-east of China, including the whole Yangtze basin, was then ruled by the Sung dynasty.
Just after 970 the original Mongol tribe moved westwards from the Ergön River and Kölen Na'ur lake to the foothills of Burqan-qaldun Mountain close to the headwaters of the Onon, Kelüren, and Tu'ula rivers (as a result of which they are sometimes referred to as the Three River Mongols).
During the first half of the 12th century, under the reign of Qabul Khan, the Mongols of the Three Rivers expanded to become a strong and united tribal confederation.
We know that in approximately 90 AD the Hsien-pi absorbed some of the northern Hsiung-nu.
By the late 3rd century two of the Hsien-pi leaders had already adopted the title , possibly suggesting a link with the neighbouring Turkic tribes to their west.
Temujin, who would later be renamed Chinggis Khan, was born into the Kiyat lineage of the Borjigin clan.
The Eastern Nomadic Tribes The Rise of Chinggis Khan Mongol Unification The Qara Qithay Mongol Expansion in the East Relations with Khorezm The Conquest of Khorezm Ghaznia, Khurasan, the Caucasus and Qipchaq The of Jöchi Conclusions Appendix 1. It involved people from three linguistic groups: Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic; encompassing pastoral steppe nomads in the south and forest-dwellers in the north.
Chinggis Khan's Chief Sons, Grandsons, and Generals References The Mongol confederation that dominated Central Asia and Eastern Europe for much of the 13th and 14th centuries was initially formed from a large number of nomadic tribes who roamed across a massive region stretching eastward from the Altai across Mongolia and south-eastern Siberia.
Although the Mongols believed in a plethora of natural spirits they also believed that the world was controlled by a single unifying force, which they called or the Eternal Blue Heaven.
They practiced exogamy, and bridal kidnappings were common, as was polygamy.
Other important Mongol groups in the region included the Onggirats, who lived close to the Tatar in the Qalka river region in the extreme east of Mongolia, and the Oyirat or Dörben Oirad ("Allied Four"), a group of four forest tribes located to the west of Lake Baikal.